ኢትዮጵያ | Itiyoophiyaa | Itoobiya | ናይኢትዮጵያ | Ityoppiah | Ethiopia

REGION
Horn of Africa

SIZE
1,104,300 km² (10th largest country in Africa)

BIRDS AND BIRDING

SPECIES
Diversity
Mostly Afrotropical avifauna, with a high degree of endemism
Approximately 860 recorded species (9th longest bird list of any country in the ABC region)

Ruspoli’s Turaco (Tadeusz Rosiński)
Harwood’s Spurfowl (Adam Riley)
Blue-winged Goose (Paul van Giersbergen)

Endemics (E)
Blue-winged Goose (NT)
Moorland Francolin (NT)
Harwood’s Spurfowl (NT)
Nechisar Nightjar (VU)
Ruspoli’s Turaco (NT)
Spot-breasted Lapwing (LC)
Yellow-fronted Parrot (LC)
Stresemann’s Bushcrow | Ethiopian Bushcrow (EN)
White-tailed Swallow (VU)
Abyssinian Catbird (LC)
Red-billed Pytilia (LC)
Abyssinian Longclaw (NT)
Yellow-throated Seedeater | Yellow-throated Serin (EN)
Salvadori’s Seedeater | Salvadori’s Serin (NT)
Ankober Serin (VU)
Ethiopian Siskin | Black-headed Siskin (LC)

Moorland Francolin (Adam Riley)

Near-endemics (NE)
Chestnut-naped Spurfowl
Erckel’s Spurfowl
White-cheeked Turaco
White-collared Pigeon
Rouget’s Rail
Wattled Ibis
Abyssinian Owl | Abyssinian Long-eared Owl
Black-billed Wood Hoopoe
Banded Barbet
Abyssinian Woodpecker | Golden-backed Woodpecker
Black-winged Lovebird
Ethiopian Boubou
Ethiopian Oriole | Ethiopian Black-headed Oriole
Thick-billed Raven
White-backed Black Tit
Blanford’s Lark
Ethiopian Cisticola
White-rumped Babbler
White-billed Starling
Ethiopian Thrush
Abyssinian Slaty Flycatcher
White-winged Cliff Chat
Rüppell’s Black Chat | Rüppell’s Chat
Sombre Rock Chat
Swainson’s Sparrow
Yellow-rumped Seedeater | Yellow-rumped Serin
Brown-rumped Seedeater

Thick-billed Raven (John Caddick)
Stresemann’s Bushcrow (Tadeusz Rosiński)
Spot-breasted Lapwing (Paul van Giersbergen)
Abyssinian Owl (John Caddick)
Ankober Serin (John Caddick)

Birds best found in Ethiopia but occurring more widely (BT), including endemic subspecies (ESS)
White-winged Collared Dove
Hemprich’s Hornbill
Ethiopian Bee-eater
Yellow-breasted Barbet
Grey-headed Batis (orientalis)
Red-naped Bushshrike (rufinuchalis)
Somali Fiscal
Somali Crow | Dwarf Raven
Fan-tailed Raven (rhipidurus)
Archer’s Lark | Liben Lark
Gillett’s Lark (gilletti)
Somali Short-toed Lark (somalica/megaensis)
Somali Bulbul
Boran Cisticola (ESS kaffensis/bodessa)
Abyssinian White-eye (abyssinicus/omoensis)
White-headed Babbler | Cretzschmar’s Babbler
Shelley’s Starling
White-crowned Starling (albicapillus/horrensis)
Abyssinian Ground Thrush (piaggiae)
Little Rock Thrush (rufocinereus)
Moorland Chat | Alpine Chat (ESS sordida)
Rusty-breasted Wheatear
Blackstart (lypura/aussae)
Abyssinian Wheatear (lugubris)
Nile Valley Sunbird
Shining Sunbird (habessinicus/alter/turkanae)
Rüppell’s Weaver
Juba Weaver | Salvadori’s Weaver
Barka Indigobird | Baka Indigobird
Northern Grosbeak Canary

Birds occurring in only two territories of the ABC region but not NE or BT (1/2)
Little Brown Bustard
White-winged Flufftail
Masked Lark
Philippa’s Crombec | Short-billed Crombec
Somali Wheatear

Birds best found in two territories but occurring in more (B2), including ESS
Somali Ostrich
Maccoa Duck
Vulturine Guineafowl
Clapperton’s Spurfowl (sharpii)
Sombre Nightjar
Donaldson Smith’s Nightjar
Star-spotted Nightjar
Nyanza Swift
Hartlaub’s Bustard
Lichtenstein’s Sandgrouse (lichtensteinii/sukensis)
Black-winged Lapwing
Somali Courser
Cape Eagle-Owl (dillonii)
Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill
Somali Bee-eater
Black-billed Barbet
Eastern Grey Woodpecker | Mountain Gray Woodpecker | Grey-headed Woodpecker
Fox Kestrel
Pringle’s Puffback
Mouse-colored Penduline Tit
Chestnut-headed Sparrow-Lark (harrisoni/signatus)
Foxy Lark (intercedens/alopex)
Thekla’s Lark (ESS harrarensis + huei/praetermissa/ellioti/huriensis)
Rufous-capped Lark (daaroodensis)
Dodson’s Bulbul
Somali Crombec
Ashy Cisticola (cinereolus/schillingsi)
Tiny Cisticola
Foxy Cisticola (ferrugineus)
Pale Prinia (erlangeri)
Brown-tailed Apalis (viridiceps/flavocincta)
Grey Wren-Warbler
Yellow-vented Eremomela
Green-backed Eremomela (abyssinica)
Rufous Chatterer (sharpii/rubiginosa)
Scaly Chatterer (aylmeri/boranensis)
Bristle-crowned Starling
Magpie Starling
Gambaga Flycatcher
Rüppell’s Robin-Chat (semirufa/donaldsoni)
Brown-tailed Rock Chat | Brown-tailed Chat (scotocerca/turkana/spectatrix)
Black-capped Social Weaver
Shelley’s Sparrow | Shelley’s Rufous Sparrow | White Nile Sparrow
Abyssinian Crimsonwing (salvadorii)
Black-cheeked Waxbill (charmosyna)
Crimson-rumped Waxbill (rhodopyga/centralis)
African Citril | Abyssinian Citril (citrinelloides)
Stripe-breasted Seedeater

Proposed new species or splits not yet accepted by IOC
Archer’s Francolin (BT)
Black-fronted Spurfowl (NE)
Schuett’s Spurfowl
Abyssinian Nightjar
Brown-faced Go-away-bird (E)
Crimson-crested Turaco (E)
Ethiopian Goshawk (NE)
Abyssinian Eagle-Owl (B2)
Blue-breasted Roller (BT)
Northern Red-fronted Tinkerbird (B2)
Ethiopian Puffback (NE erythreae)
Glossy-backed Drongo (lugubris)
Arabian Grey Shrike (aucheri)
Sidamo Lark | Erard’s Lark (E)
Kidepo Lark
Singing Bush Lark (BT marginata/chadensis)
Degodi Lark (1/2)
Erlanger’s Lark (E)
Pale-throated Greenbul (soror)
Blue Saw-wing (NE pristoptera/blanfordi)
Brown Saw-wing (E antinorii)
Ethiopian Saw-wing (NE oleaginea)
Eastern Crombec (leucopsis)
African Reed Warbler (cinnamomeus)
Ethiopian Stout Cisticola (NE)
Bale Parisoma | Bale Warbler (E)
Ethiopian White-eye (NE)
Kafa White-eye | Kaffa White-eye (E)
African Scrub Robin
White-winged Scrub Robin (B2)
Bafirawar’s Flycatcher | Wajir Flycatcher (1/2)
Ethiopian Grey Flycatcher (BT)
Ethiopian Stonechat (NE)
Emin’s Weaver (B2)
Reichenow’s Weaver
Yellow-shouldered Widowbird
Abyssinian Waxbill (NE)
Spectacled Quailfinch
Ethiopian Firefinch (NE)

Other taxa of interest (see also under Birding Sites), including more ESS
Common Ostrich (camelus)
White-backed Duck
African Pygmy Goose
African Black Duck
Yellow-billed Duck (ruppelli)
Cape Teal
Southern Pochard
Helmeted Guineafowl (meleagris/somaliensis)
Stone Partridge
Crested Francolin (grantii/spilogaster)
Nubian Nightjar (torridus)
Plain Nightjar
Slender-tailed Nightjar
Standard-winged Nightjar
Horus Swift
Eastern Plantain-eater
White-bellied Bustard (senegalensis/canicollis)
Black-bellied Bustard
Senegal Coucal
Blue-headed Coucal (fischeri/monachus)
White-browed Coucal
Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse (ellioti/olivascens)
Spotted Sandgrouse
Yellow-throated Sandgrouse
Four-banded Sandgrouse
African Collared Dove
Ring-necked Dove (ESS electa/somalica)
Blue-spotted Wood Dove
Bruce’s Green Pigeon
African Finfoot
African Rail | African Water Rail
Lesser Moorhen
Black Crowned Crane
Great Crested Grebe (infuscatus)
Black-necked Grebe | Eared Grebe
Lesser Flamingo
Senegal Thick-knee
Spotted Thick-knee (maculosus)
Black-headed Lapwing
Crowned Lapwing (coronatus)
Kentish Plover
Egyptian Plover
Greater Painted-snipe
Lesser Jacana
Temminck’s Courser
Double-banded Courser (ESS raffertyi/hartingi)
Three-banded Courser | Heuglin’s Courser (mayaudi)
Rock Pratincole
Saddle-billed Stork
Pink-backed Pelican
Secretarybird
Scissor-tailed Kite | African Swallow-tailed Kite
Egyptian Vulture
Rüppell’s Vulture | Rüppell’s Griffon
Western Banded Snake Eagle | Banded Snake Eagle
Grasshopper Buzzard
Northern White-faced Owl
Greyish Eagle-Owl
Speckled Mousebird (leucotis)
Blue-naped Mousebird (macrourus/abyssinicus)
Narina Trogon
Black Scimitarbill (notatus)
Abyssinian Ground Hornbill
Northern Red-billed Hornbill
Crowned Hornbill
Silvery-cheeked Hornbill
Abyssinian Roller
Broad-billed Roller (ESS aethiopicus)
Half-collared Kingfisher
White-throated Bee-eater
African Green Bee-eater
Olive Bee-eater | Madagascar Bee-eater
Northern Carmine Bee-eater
Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird (ESS xanthostictus)
Red-fronted Barbet
Double-toothed Barbet
Nubian Woodpecker
Little-spotted Woodpecker | Green-backed Woodpecker (nyansae)
Bearded Woodpecker (schoensis)
African Grey Woodpecker (abessinicus)
Pygmy Falcon
Greater Kestrel
Meyer’s Parrot (meyeri/saturatus)
Western Black-headed Batis | von Erlanger’s Batis (erlangeri)
Brown-throated Wattle-eye (aethiopica)
Grey-headed Bushshrike (approximans/catharoxanthus)
Orange-breasted Bushshrike | Sulphur-breasted Bushshrike (similis)
Marsh Tchagra (minuta)
Black-crowned Tchagra (habessinicus)
Slate-colored Boubou
Brubru (afer/ESS hilgerti/minor)
White-crested Helmetshrike (concinnatus/cristatus/vinaceigularis)
White-breasted Cuckooshrike
Black Cuckooshrike
Red-shouldered Cuckooshrike
Black-headed Oriole | African Black-headed Oriole (rolleti)
African Golden Oriole (auratus)
African Paradise Flycatcher (ferreti)
Northern White-crowned Shrike | White-rumped Shrike
Grey-backed Fiscal (excubitoroides/intercedens)
Northern Fiscal (humeralis)
Pied Crow
White-winged Black Tit (leucomelas)
Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark (leucotis)
Flappet Lark (ESS rufocinnamomea + omoensis/torrida)
Crested Lark (altirostris/somaliensis)
Northern Brownbul
Common Bulbul (schoanus)
Dark-capped Bulbul (ESS spurius)
Pale Crag Martin (pusilla)
Red-throated Rock Martin (fusciventris)
Wire-tailed Swallow (smithii)
Ethiopian Swallow (aethiopica/amadoni)
Mosque Swallow (saturatior)
Lesser Striped Swallow (abyssinica/unitatis)
Red-faced Crombec (loringi)
Little Rush Warbler (ESS abyssinicus)
Red-faced Cisticola (pyrrhomitra/niloticus)
Rattling Cisticola (fricki)
Short-winged Cisticola | Siffling Cisticola (zedlitzi)
Zitting Cisticola (uropygialis)
Tawny-flanked Prinia (subflava/pallescens)
Buff-bellied Warbler
Grey-backed Camaroptera (brevicaudata/abessinica/ESS insulata)
Yellow-bellied Eremomela (griseoflava)
Wattled Starling
Greater Blue-eared Starling (cyaniventris)
Lesser Blue-eared Starling
Rüppell’s Starling (aeneocephalus/purpuroptera)
Superb Starling
Red-billed Oxpecker
African Thrush (pelios/centralis)
Grey Tit-Flycatcher (plumbea)
Northern Black Flycatcher (lugubris/schistaceus)
Collared Sunbird (ESS djamdjamensis)
Scarlet-chested Sunbird (proteus)
Beautiful Sunbird (pulchellus)
Marico Sunbird | Mariqua Sunbird (osiris)
Variable Sunbird (fazoqlensis/albiventris)
Yellow-spotted Bush Sparrow (pyrgita)
Sahel Bush Sparrow
Chestnut Sparrow
Red-billed Buffalo Weaver (intermedius)
White-headed Buffalo Weaver (dinemelli)
White-browed Sparrow-Weaver (melanorhynchus)
Thick-billed Weaver | Grosbeak Weaver (melanota)
Little Weaver (luteolus)
Northern Masked Weaver (taeniopterus)
Lesser Masked Weaver (intermedius)
Vitelline Masked Weaver (uluensis)
Speke’s Weaver
Village Weaver (abyssinicus)
Chestnut Weaver (rubiginosus)
Red-headed Weaver (leuconotos)
Red-billed Quelea (aethiopica)
Black-winged Red Bishop (craspedopterus)
Northern Red Bishop (franciscanus/pusillus)
White-winged Widowbird (eques)
Bronze Mannikin (scutata)
African Silverbill (orientalis)
Common Waxbill (ESS peasei)
Cut-throat Finch | Cut-throat (alexanderi)
Orange-breasted Waxbill | Zebra Waxbill
Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu (bengalus)
Green-winged Pytilia (citerior/jessei/soudanensis)
Red-billed Firefinch (rhodopsis/brunneiceps/somaliensis)
Jameson’s Firefinch (rhodopareia)
Village Indigobird (ultramarina)
Purple Indigobird
Jambandu Indigobird
Pin-tailed Whydah
Long-tailed Paradise Whydah | Eastern Paradise Whydah
Cuckoo-finch | Parasitic Weaver
Plain-backed Pipit (saphiroi/omoensis)
Reichenow’s Seedeater
Striolated Bunting (saturatior/striolata)
Cinnamon-breasted Bunting (septemstriata/tahapisi)

MAIN HABITATS
Montane moorlands, escarpments and forests, arid savanna

BIRD AREAS
Central Ethiopian highlands Endemic Bird Area (EBA)
Jubba and Shabeelle valleys EBA
South Ethiopian highlands EBA
Northern Ethiopia Secondary Area
68 Important Bird Areas

BIRDING SITES
Bale Mountains National Park (NP), Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Jemma Valley, Bishangari Lodge, Harenna Forest, Debre Libanos and Wondo Genet for montane endemics and near-endemics as well as other highland taxa including Ruddy Shelduck, Common Quail (erlangeri), Scaly Spurfowl (schuetti), Montane Nightjar (poliocephalus), Freckled Nightjar, Scarce Swift, African Emerald Cuckoo, African Olive Pigeon, Lemon Dove (bronzina), Dusky Turtle Dove, Wattled Crane, African Snipe, Bearded Vulture, Ayres’s Hawk-Eagle, Golden Eagle (homeyeri), Verreaux’s Eagle, Rufous-breasted Sparrowhawk (ESS perspicillaris), Mountain Buzzard, Augur Buzzard, African Wood Owl (umbrina), Green-backed Honeybird (ellenbecki), Scaly-throated Honeyguide, Red-throated Wryneck (ESS aequatorialis), Grey Cuckooshrike, Red-billed Chough (ESS baileyi), Cape Crow (kordofanensis), Banded Martin (ESS erlangeri), Brown-throated Martin (minor/ESS schoensis), Grey-rumped Swallow (griseopyga), Red-chested Swallow (ESS rothschildi), Red-rumped Swallow (melanocrissus), Brown Woodland Warbler (umbrovirens/ESS omoensis), Lesser Swamp Warbler (ESS tsanae/parvus), African Yellow Warbler (massaica), Bamboo Warbler (alfredi), Fan-tailed Grassbird (alexinae), Cinnamon Bracken Warbler (cinnamomeus), Singing Cisticola (cantans), Stout Cisticola (ESS robustus/schraderi/ESS omo), Croaking Cisticola (inexpectatus), Black-backed Cisticola (eximius), Pectoral-patch Cisticola (ESS wambera/brunnescens), Yellow-breasted Apalis (ESS abyssinica), African Hill Babbler (abyssinica), Brown Parisoma (ESS lugens + griseiventris), Heuglin’s White-eye (poliogastrus/ESS kaffensis), African Spotted Creeper (ESS erlangeri), Splendid Starling (splendidus), Red-winged Starling (rueppellii), Slender-billed Starling (tenuirostris), Somali Starling, Stuhlmann’s Starling, Sharpe’s Starling, Abyssinian Thrush (abyssinicus), African Dusky Flycatcher (minima), Red-capped Robin-Chat (intensa), African Stonechat (albofasciatus), Mocking Cliff Chat (albiscapulata/subrufipennis), White-fronted Black Chat (albifrons/ESS pachyrhyncha), Familiar Chat (falkensteini/omoensis), Olive Sunbird (ragazzii), Tacazze Sunbird (tacazze), Malachite Sunbird (cupreonitens), Olive-bellied Sunbird (ESS bineschensis), Baglafecht Weaver (baglafecht/emini/reichenowi), Spectacled Weaver (crocatus), Yellow-crowned Bishop (ESS strictus), Yellow Bishop (ESS xanthomelas), Fan-tailed Widowbird (ESS traversii), Yellow-mantled Widowbird (macrocercus), Red-cowled Widowbird (laticauda), Black-and-white Mannikin (poensis), Yellow-bellied Waxbill (quartinia), Green Twinspot (chubbi), Quailfinch (fuscocrissa), African Firefinch (haematocephala), Mountain Wagtail (ESS clara), African Pipit (ESS cinnamomeus), Long-billed Pipit (nivescens/hararensis), Streaky Seedeater (striolata) and Yellow-crowned Canary (flavivertex)
Nechisar NP to search for Nechisar Nightjar, as well as for Green Malkoha, Marsh Owl and White-tailed Lark
Arero and Filtu areas for Ruspoli’s Turaco and Salvadori’s Seedeater
Yabelo, Mega and Negele areas for Stresemann’s Bushcrow and White-tailed Swallow as well as arid savanna species including Coqui Francolin (maharao), Orange River Francolin (archeri), Chestnut-naped Spurfowl (atrifrons), Yellow-necked Spurfowl (infuscatus), White-bellied Go-away-bird, Kori Bustard, Heuglin’s Bustard, Buff-crested Bustard, Black-faced Sandgrouse, Emerald-spotted Wood Dove, Eastern Chanting Goshawk, Speckled Mousebird (hilgerti), Grant’s Wood Hoopoe, Abyssinian Scimitarbill (cabanisi), Von der Decken’s Hornbill, Black-throated Barbet, Red-and-yellow Barbet, D’Arnaud’s Barbet, Cardinal Woodpecker (massaicus), Red-bellied Parrot (rufiventris), Pygmy Batis, Rosy-patched Bushshrike (hilgerti), Three-streaked Tchagra (jamesi), Fork-tailed Drongo (jubaensis), Taita Fiscal, Acacia Tit (thruppi), Pink-breasted Lark, Short-tailed Lark (megaensis), Masked Lark (yavelloensis), Croaking Cisticola (argenteus), Desert Cisticola (lavendulae), Red-fronted Prinia (smithi), Banded Parisoma (somalica), Pale White-eye (jubaensis), Golden-breasted Starling, Bare-eyed Thrush, African Grey Flycatcher (neumanni), Spotted Palm Thrush (intercalans), Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird, Hunter’s Sunbird, Parrot-billed Sparrow, Somali Sparrow (fulgens), Donaldson-Smith’s Sparrow-Weaver, Grey-capped Social Weaver (ESS australoabyssinicus), Cardinal Quelea (cardinalis), Grey-headed Silverbill, Purple Grenadier, Orange-winged Pytilia, Steel-blue Whydah, Straw-tailed Whydah, Golden Pipit, Bushveld Pipit (ESS australoabyssinicus), White-bellied Canary and Somali Bunting
Afar Region (Mile Serdo and Aledeghi Wildlife Reserves, Awash NP and Lake Basaka) for Sombre Rock Chat and more arid savanna species including Arabian Bustard, Abyssinian Scimitarbill (minor), Cardinal Woodpecker (hemprichii), Greater Hoopoe-Lark (desertorum), Desert Lark (assabensis), Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark (melanauchen), Red-winged Lark (ESS gallarum), Graceful Prinia (gracilis), Red-fronted Prinia (rufifrons), Black Scrub Robin (podobe), Rufous-tailed Scrub Robin (minor), White-crowned Wheatear and Sudan Golden Sparrow
Ogaden for Little Brown Bustard and Masked Lark (ESS personata) as well as Little Owl (somaliensis), Red-bellied Parrot (pallidus), Collared Lark, Rufous-tailed Scrub Robin (hamertoni), White-browed Scrub Robin (eluta), Somali Sparrow (castanopterus) and Blue-capped Cordon-bleu
Bogol Manyo and Doolow area for Gillett’s Lark (degodiensis), Philippa’s Crombec and Somali Wheatear as well as Water Thick-knee, Crowned Lapwing (demissus), Blue-naped Mousebird (pulcher), Sombre Greenbul (insularis), Fischer’s Starling, Spotted Palm Thrush (rufipennis), Black-bellied Sunbird (erlangeri) and Purple-banded Sunbird (microrhynchus)
Jubba and Shabeelle Valleys for Speckled Mousebird (mombassicus), Grey-headed Kingfisher (hyacinthina), Lesser Swamp Warbler (leptorhynchus), Scaly Babbler (jubaensis/carolinae), Collared Sunbird (elachior) and Golden Palm Weaver
Tigray Region for Vieillot’s Barbet, Rose-ringed Parakeet, Brown-necked Raven, Red-pate Cisticola (scotopterus), Chestnut-bellied Starling, Yellow-billed Oxpecker, Heuglin’s Wheatear, White-billed Buffalo Weaver, Speckle-fronted Weaver (frontalis), Black-headed Weaver (dimidiatus), Sahel Paradise Whydah and Golden-breasted Bunting (flavigaster)
Gambela and South West Regions for more typically western African taxa including Long-tailed Nightjar, Vinaceous Dove, Black-billed Wood Dove, Red-necked Buzzard, Blue-naped Mousebird (griseogularis), Blue-breasted Kingfisher, Swallow-tailed Bee-eater (heuglini), Red-throated Bee-eater (frenatus), Brown-backed Woodpecker, Red-headed Lovebird, Black-headed Gonolek, Piapiac, White-shouldered Black Tit, West African Swallow, Red-winged Prinia (ESS major), Northern Yellow White-eye (senegalensis), Brown Babbler (cinerea), Yellow-bellied Hyliota (flavigaster), White-crowned Robin-Chat (omoensis), Snowy-crowned Robin-Chat (niveicapilla), Pygmy Sunbird, Copper Sunbird (cupreus), Chestnut-crowned Sparrow-Weaver, Compact Weaver, Black-rumped Waxbill, Bar-breasted Firefinch, Wilson’s Indigobird, Exclamatory Paradise Whydah, White-rumped Seedeater and Brown-rumped Bunting, as well as Swamp Nightjar, Black Coucal, Long-toed Lapwing, African Skimmer, White-backed Night Heron, Shoebill, Green Wood Hoopoe (niloticus), Cardinal Woodpecker (lepidus), Red-winged Lark (kathangorensis), Moustached Grass Warbler (amauroura), Lesser Swamp Warbler (jacksoni), Highland Rush Warbler (sudanensis), Winding Cisticola (marginatus), Red-pate Cisticola (mongalla), Dusky Babbler, Silverbird, White-browed Robin-Chat (heuglini), Spotted Palm Thrush (guttata), Collared Sunbird (garguensis), Northern Grey-headed Sparrow (ugandae), Black-necked Weaver (melanoxanthus), Red-headed Quelea, Black Bishop (ansorgei), Magpie Mannikin and Common Waxbill (macmillani)
Lakes Ziway, Langano, Abijata and Shalla for waterbirds
Lake Cheleleka for waterfowl including Ferruginous Duck and Tufted Duck, as well as other non-breeding migrants including Common Crane

TIMING (Oct, Mar-Apr)
Best to visit at the start of the rains in the highlands (Mar–May) and the main rains in the arid lowlands (Apr–May, Oct), when most birds breed
Afro-Palearctic migrants are present Oct–Mar and best on passage Sep–Oct
Avoid the main rains in the highlands (Jun–Sep)

RESOURCES
Apps
Birds of Africa (iOS or Android)

Field guides
Birds of the Horn of Africa by Nigel Redman, Terry Stevenson and John Fanshawe (2011)
Birds of Eastern Africa by Ber Van Perlo (2009)

Sounds
Bird Recordings from Ethiopia by Steve Smith

Site guides
Where to Watch Birds in Ethiopia by Claire Spottiswoode, Merid Gabremichael & Julian Francis (2010)
Birding Ethiopia: a Guide to the Country’s Birding Sites by Ken Behrens, Keith Barnes & Christian Boix (2010)

Atlases
Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea: an Atlas of Distribution by John Ash & John Atkins (2009)

Further reading
Ethiopia by Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS) in Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands: Priority Sites for Conservation edited by Lincoln D C Fishpool & Michael I Evans (2001)
A Guide to Endemic Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea by Jose Luis Vivero Pol (2001)
Bird Diversity of Chebera Churchura National Park, Ethiopia: the Study of Avian Relative Abundance, Distribution and Seasonal Habitat Association by Dereje Woldejohannes Tanga (2011)
The Search for the Rarest Bird in the World by Vernon R L Head (2014)
Ethiopia: in Search of Endemic Birds, a trip report by Julian Francis & Hadoram Shirihai (1999)
A Survey of Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia by J W Duckworth (1992)
Articles in Walia (journal of the EWNHS), Agazen (EWNHS educational newsletter), SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, Scopus, Bull. ABC, etc.

Websites
Simien National Park – UNESCO World Heritage List
Tadele Travel
Ethiopia Tours – Ashanti African Tours

Blogs
Ethiopia’s Endemics – 10,000 Birds by Adam Riley (2012)
Tribes and Birds of the Lower Omo Valley – 10,000 Birds by Adam Riley (2015)

ORGANISATIONS

The Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS) is the BirdLife Partner in Ethiopia

The BirdLife International UNDP/GEF Migratory Soaring Birds Project works in Ethiopia

Other bird or conservation organisations active in Ethiopia include –
Ethio Wetlands and Natural Resources Association (EWNRA)
Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Development Association of Ethiopia (WildCODE) 
Wildlife for Sustainable Development (WSD)
Lem, the Environment & Development Society of Ethiopia (Lem Ethiopia)
Forum for Environment (FfE)
Ethiopian Heritage Trust
Berga Bird Lovers Group
Lalibela Bird Club
Menagesha Suba Forest Lovers Group
SOS Sahel Ethiopia
Biodiversity Inventory for Conservation (BINCO)
WeForest
NABU
Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS)

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